jRESP in a nutshell

jRESP (Java Run-time Environment for SCEL Programs) is a Java runtime environment providing a framework for developing autonomic and adaptive systems according to the SCEL paradigm. Specifically, jRESP provides an API that permits using in Java programs the SCEL linguistic constructs for controlling the computation and interaction of autonomic components, and for defining the architecture of systems and ensembles.

SCEL (Software Component Ensemble Language), is a kernel language that takes a holistic approach to programming autonomic computing systems and aims at providing programmers with a complete set of linguistic abstractions for programming the behavior of Autonomic Components (AC) and the formation of Autonomic Component Ensembles (ACS), and for controlling the interaction among different Autonomic Components. These abstractions permit describing autonomic systems in terms of Behaviors, Knowledge and Aggregations, by complying with specific Policies.

SCEL is, somehow, minimal; its syntax fully specifies only constructs for modeling Behaviors and Aggregations and is parametric with respect to Knowledge and Policies. This choice permits integrating different approaches to policies specifications or to knowledge handling within the language and to easily superimpose ACEs on top of heterogeneous ACs.

Like SCEL, also jRESP is parametric with respect to some aspects, e.g. knowledge representation, that may change to tailor to different application domains. For this reason, also jRESP is designed to accommodate alternative instantiations of the above mentioned features. Indeed, thanks to the large use of design patterns, the integration of new features in jRESP is greatly simplified.

SCEL operational semantics abstracts from a specific communication infrastructure. A SCEL program typically consists of a set of (possibly heterogeneous) components, each of which is equipped with its own knowledge repository. These components concur and cooperate in a highly dynamic environment to achieve a set of goals. In this kind of systems the underlying communication infrastructure can change dynamically as the result of local component interactions. To cope with this dynamicity, jRESP communication infrastructure has been designed to avoid centralized control. Moreover, to facilitate interoperability with other tools and programming frameworks, jRESP relies on JSON. This is an open data interchange technology that permits simplifying the interactions between heterogeneous network components and provides the basis on which SCEL programs can cooperate with external services or devices.

jRESP architecture

jRESP Nodes

A SCEL program consists of a set of components executed over a distributed infrastructure. Components are implemented via the class Node. The architecture of a node is shown in the following figure:


Nodes are executed over virtual machines or physical devices providing access to input/output devices and network connections. A node aggregates a knowledge repository, a set of running processes, and a set of policies. Structural and behavioral information about a node are collected into an interface via attribute collectors. Nodes interact via ports supporting both point-to-point and group-oriented communications.


The interface KnowledgeManager identifies a generic knowledge repository and indicates the high-level primitives to manage pieces of relevant information coming from different sources. This interface contains the methods for withdrawing/retrieving/adding piece of knowledge from/to a repository. A knowledge manager based on Tuple Space is integrated is currently in jRESP.  Thus, items are defined as tuples, i.e. sequences of  Objects, that can be collected into a knowledge repository. They can be retrieved/withdrawn via pattern-matching through templates, consisting of a sequence of actual and formal fields.

External data can be collected into a knowledge repository via sensors. Each sensor can be associated to a logical or physical device providing data that can be retrieved by processes and that can be the subject of adaptation. Similarly, actuators can be used to send data to an external device or service attached to a node. This approach allows jRESP processes to control exogenous devices that identify logical/physical actuators.

The interface associated to a node is computed by exploiting attribute collectors. Each of this collector is able to inspect the local knowledge and to compute the value of the attributes. This mechanism equips a node with reflective capabilities allowing a component to self-project the image of its state on the interface. Indeed, when the local knowledge is updated the involved collectors are automatically activated and the node interface is modified accordingly.

Network Infrastructure

Each Node is equipped with a set of ports for interacting with other components. A port is identified by an address that can be used to refer to other jRESP components. Each node can be addressed via a pair composed of the node name and the address of one of its ports. The abstract class AbstractPort implements the generic behaviour of a port. It implements the communication protocol used by jRESP components to interact with each other. Class AbstractPort also provides the instruments to dispatch messages to components. However, the methods used for sending messages via a specific communication network/media are abstract. The concrete classes defining specific kinds of ports extend AbstractPort to provide concrete implementations of the above outlined abstract methods, so to use different underlying network infrastructures (e.g., Internet, Ad-hoc networks, \ldots).

Currently, four kinds of port are available: SocketPort, ScribePort, ServerPort and VirtualPort. The first one implements point-to-point and group-oriented interactions via TCP and UDP, respectively. In particular, SocketPort implements group-oriented interactions in terms of a UDP broadcast. Unfortunately, this approach does not scale when the size of involved components increases. To provide a more efficient and reliable support to group-oriented interactions, jRESP provides the class ScribePort. This class realises interactions in terms of the P2P and multicast protocols provided by Scribe and FreePastry. A more centralized implementation is provided by ServerPort. All messages sent along this kind of port pass through a centralize server that dispatches all the received messages to each of the managed ports. Finally, VirtualPort implements a port where interactions are performed via a buffer stored in memory. A VirtualPort is used to simulate nodes in a single application without relying on a specific network infrastructure.


SCEL processes are implemented as threads via the abstract class Agent, which provides the methods implementing the SCEL actions. In fact, they can be used for generating fresh names, for instantiating new components and for withdrawing/retrieving/adding information items from/to shared knowledge repositories. The latter methods extend the ones considered in knowledge with another parameter identifying either the (possibly remote) node where the target repository is located or the group of nodes whose repositories have to be accessed. As previously mentioned, group-oriented interactions are supported by the communication protocols defined in the node ports and by attribute collectors.


Like in SCEL, in jRESP policies can be used to regulate the interaction between the different internal parts of components and their mutual interactions. When a method of an instance of class Agent is invoked, its execution is delegated to the policy associated to the node where the agent is running. The policy can then control the execution of the action (for instance, by generating an exception when some access right has been violated) and, possibly, of related extra actions. By default, each node is instantiated with the policy allowing any operation. Different kinds of policies can be easily integrated in jRESP by implementing the interface IPolicy.